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APK Maker: How to Build Your Own Create 017 APK File Without Coding


Colluding apps bypass the security measures enforced by sandboxed operating systems such as Android. App collusion can be a real threat in cloud environments as well. Research in detecting and protecting against app collusion requires a variety of colluding apps for experimentation. Presently the number of (real or manually crafted) apps available to researchers is very limited. In this paper we propose a system called Application Collusion Engine (ACE) to automatically generate combinations of colluding and non-colluding Android apps to help researchers fairly evaluate different collusion detection and protection methods. Our initial implementation includes a variety of components that enable the system to create more than 5,000 different colluding and non-colluding app sets. ACE can be extended with more functional components to create even more colluding apps. To show the usefulness of our system, we have applied different risk evaluation and collusion detection methods to the created set of colluding apps.


This paper aims to meet the need a practical set of colluding apps for research. Our system called Collusion Application Engine (ACE) is capable of automatically generating multiple colluding app sets with a variety depending on the configuration of app component templates and code snippets. ACE can be extended with new app components and code blocks to create a greater variety of new colluding app sets, if needed. In this way, it is easy to create substantial app sets (colluding and non colluding) for experimentation avoiding the need for a great deal of manual programming effort. The source code of ACE, as well as an initial set of 240 apps are available upon request from the authors.Footnote 1




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The remainder of this paper is structured as follows. Section 2 describes previous efforts of other researchers in exploring colluding apps. Section 3 describes the methodology underlying ACE and how it can generate thousands of different app sets. Section 4 shows the validation process followed to test the apps created by ACE. Finally, Sect. 5 presents our conclusions and future directions for research.


ACE is composed by two main components: the Colluding Set Engine and the Application Engine (Fig. 1). In a nutshell, the Colluding Set Engine tells the Application Engine how it should create apps in order to collude. The Colluding Set Engine reads collusion description files from the Collusion Template database and, using the App template database generates a set of application description files. The Application Engine reads the app description files passed by the Collusion Set Engine; it fetches the necessary payloads from the Code Snippet and Component Templates databases and builds the app files, producing a signed apk file for each app of the colluding set.


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In our case, each defined action is implemented with a specific code snippet. In this way, creating a colluding app set to execute a threat requires to split, across different apps, the different code snippets (actions) required to execute it. The communication channel used to execute the attack is not relevant to the attack goal. As long as the selected code snippets allow apps to exchange information somehow, the generated set will be able to collude. This fact enables us to create many different colluding app sets for even the same threat by interchanging different communication code snippets. Additionally, this allows us to create colluding app sets of an arbitrary number of apps. If the number of apps in the set exceeds the number of actions, some of the apps will just forward messages from one app to another.


The Application Engine creates fully working apps by filling app component templates with code snippets. The Application Engine works as follows. First, it reads and processes the app description file. This retrieves the required component templates and code snippets and adds all the reference resource files to the app source. Then, the component templates are filled; the app manifest is generated; and the project is built and signed, producing an APK file that can be installed in a device.


are in charge of executing communication tasks. There are two types of communication snippets: those used to communicate outside the device and those used for inter-app communication. Listing 3 shows a code snippet that posts a string to a URL. The snipppet creates a new threat to open an HTTP client and execute the post query. Lines 1-3 specify the required imports. Line 4 specifies that any app including this snippet should request the


ACE also allows the easy generation of non-colluding apps. This can be achieved by simply creating an app description file (Fig. 2) that includes the necessary components and code snippets for the required functionality. App description files are automatically generated by the Collusion Set Engine for colluding app sets, but can be manually created and used directly with the Application Engine. This fact can be used to generate apps that might be detected as colluding but are not colluding. These generated apps could be used to test, against false positives, new collusion detection methods. To do this, we have followed these approaches:


We generated 240 pairs of colluding apps focusing on apps that execute information theft attacks because most of the detection tools are focused on that threat. Table 1 lists the different resource snippet used for app generation. Each of the 240 generated app sets includes one app that reads sensitive information from the device. The code that reads the sensitive information in that app is created by randomly injecting a combination of the 9 snippets shown in Table 1. All the information read by the snippets is concatenated into an string and then sent to the other app for extraction.


To validate that the sensitive information was exchanged between colluding apps, we manually created contacts, and personal information on the device prior the tests. In addition, information sent to a external web server (controlled by us) was logged on the server and the device. To ensure that the collusion really happened we verified the device logs and the HTTP POST requests received by the server.


Colluding apps generally distribute the permissions they require to execute a threat. In our experiments we measured the risks created by single and combined apps.Footnote 4 Combining the permissions used by apps that communicate to measure the risk of collusion was also proposed in [7]. Figure 4 shows two boxplots representing the risk associated with single and combined apks respectively. As expected, the risk levels of combined apks is higher than the obtained by single apps. The difference in the maxima of each category can be attributed to all the combined apks requesting the


I created a project click the button, it can run successfully on emulator. I try to install it on android mobile (Moto G), for that I search the (.apk file) in my project and it will locate it on bin/debug/filname.apk. In this bin folder, I have 2 apk file filename.apk and filename.signed.apk. I copied both apk file to my mobile and try to install filename.apk, but it failed to install and then I try to install filename.signed.apk it installed successfully. But when I try to open it on mobile it is force closing automatically.


I have the below Dockerfile for zookeeper and I am trying to create an image for it, but it is giving me an error. I have recently started working with Docker, and started playing with a Zookeeper setup, so I am not able to understand. What does this error mean?


Your PWA now works outside the browser. This chapter covers how to integrate further with the operating system once users install your app.On this page Working with the file systemOpening a fileSaving changesFile handlingURL handlingURL protocol handlingCalling other appsWeb ShareWeb Share TargetContact PickerResourcesWeb apps have a big reach. They run on multiple platforms. They are easy to share via links. But traditionally they lacked integration with the operating system. Not long ago they were not even installable. Luckily that has changed and now we can take advantage of that integration to add useful features to our PWAs. Let's explore some of those options.Working with the file system #A typical user workflow using files looks like this:Pick a file or folder from the device and open it directly.Make changes to those files or folders, and save the changes back directly.Make new files and folders.Before the File System Access API, web apps couldn't do this. Opening files required a file upload, saving changes required users to download them, and the web had no access at all to make new files and folders in the user's filesystem.Opening a file #To open a file we use the window.showOpenFilePicker() method. Note that this method requires a user gesture, such as a button click. Here is the rest of the setup for opening a file:Capture the file handle from the file system access's file picker API. This gives you basic information about the file.Using the handle's getFile() method, you'll get a special kind of Blob called a File that includes additional read-only properties (such as name and last modified date) about the file. Because it's a Blob, Blob methods can be called on it, such as text(), to get its content.// Have the user select a file.const [ handle ] = await window.showOpenFilePicker();// Get the File object from the handle.const file = await handle.getFile();// Get the file content.// Also available, slice(), stream(), arrayBuffer()const content = await file.text(); Saving changes #To save changes to a file, you also need a user gesture; then:Use the file handle to create a FileSystemWritableFileStream.Make changes to the stream. This won't update the file in place; instead, a temporary file is typically created.Finally, when you've finished making changes, you close the stream, which moves the changes from temporary to permanent.Let's see this in code:


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