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Sec. 2. Immediate Review of Agency Actions Taken Between January 20, 2017, and January 20, 2021. (a) The heads of all agencies shall immediately review all existing regulations, orders, guidance documents, policies, and any other similar agency actions (agency actions) promulgated, issued, or adopted between January 20, 2017, and January 20, 2021, that are or may be inconsistent with, or present obstacles to, the policy set forth in section 1 of this order. For any such actions identified by the agencies, the heads of agencies shall, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, consider suspending, revising, or rescinding the agency actions. In addition, for the agency actions in the 4 categories set forth in subsections (i) through (iv) of this section, the head of the relevant agency, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, shall consider publishing for notice and comment a proposed rule suspending, revising, or rescinding the agency action within the time frame specified.
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Sec. 3. Restoring National Monuments. (a) The Secretary of the Interior, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, including the Antiquities Act, 54 U.S.C. 320301 et seq., shall, in consultation with the Attorney General, the Secretaries of Agriculture and Commerce, the Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality, and Tribal governments, conduct a review of the monument boundaries and conditions that were established by Proclamation 9681 of December 4, 2017 (Modifying the Bears Ears National Monument); Proclamation 9682 of December 4, 2017 (Modifying the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument); and Proclamation 10049 of June 5, 2020 (Modifying the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument), to determine whether restoration of the monument boundaries and conditions that existed as of January 20, 2017, would be appropriate.
(b) In Executive Order 13754 of December 9, 2016 (Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience), and in the Presidential Memorandum of December 20, 2016 (Withdrawal of Certain Portions of the United States Arctic Outer Continental Shelf From Mineral Leasing), President Obama withdrew areas in Arctic waters and the Bering Sea from oil and gas drilling and established the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area. Subsequently, the order was revoked and the memorandum was amended in Executive Order 13795 of April 28, 2017 (Implementing an America-First Offshore Energy Strategy). Pursuant to section 12(a) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 43 U.S.C. 1341(a), Executive Order 13754 and the Presidential Memorandum of December 20, 2016, are hereby reinstated in their original form, thereby restoring the original withdrawal of certain offshore areas in Arctic waters and the Bering Sea from oil and gas drilling.
(iii) Methodology. In carrying out its activities, the Working Group shall consider the recommendations of the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine as reported in Valuing Climate Damages: Updating Estimation of the Social Cost of Carbon Dioxide (2017) and other pertinent scientific literature; solicit public comment; engage with the public and stakeholders; seek the advice of ethics experts; and ensure that the SCC, SCN, and SCM reflect the interests of future generations in avoiding threats posed by climate change.
(b) Executive Order 13807 of August 15, 2017 (Establishing Discipline and Accountability in the Environmental Review and Permitting Process for Infrastructure Projects), is hereby revoked. The Director of OMB and the Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality shall jointly consider whether to recommend that a replacement order be issued.
In the original research, using 2014 diversity data, we found that companies in the top quartile for gender diversity on their executive teams were 15 percent more likely to experience above-average profitability than companies in the fourth quartile. In our expanded 2017 data set this number rose to 21 percent and continued to be statistically significant. For ethnic and cultural diversity, the 2014 finding was a 35 percent likelihood of outperformance, comparable to the 2017 finding of a 33 percent likelihood of outperformance on EBIT margin; both were also statistically significant (Exhibit 1).
Gender diversity is correlated with both profitability and value creation. In our 2017 data set, we found a positive correlation between gender diversity on executive teams and both our measures of financial performance: top-quartile companies on executive-level gender diversity worldwide had a 21 percent likelihood of outperforming their fourth-quartile industry peers on EBIT margin, and they also had a 27 percent likelihood of outperforming fourth-quartile peers on longer-term value creation, as measured using an economic-profit (EP) margin (Exhibit 2).
Executive teams of outperforming companies have more women in line roles versus staff roles. We tested the hypothesis that having more women executives in line roles (typically revenue generating) is more closely correlated with financial outperformance. We know from research, such as our Women in the Workplace 2017 report, that women are underrepresented in line roles. In our data set, this holds true even for top-quartile gender-diverse companies experiencing above-average financial performance. Yet these top-quartile companies also have a greater proportion of women in line roles than do their fourth-quartile peers: 10 percent versus 1 percent of total executives, respectively (Exhibit 3).
The penalty for not being diverse on both measures persists. Now, as previously, companies in the fourth quartile on both gender and ethnic diversity are more likely to underperform their industry peers on profitability: 29 percent in our 2017 data set.
The coronavirus pandemic caused major economic and health care disruptions; however, unlike during previous downturns, the coverage expansions put in place by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) served as a safety net for people who lost jobs and access to health coverage. The ACA sought to address the gaps in our health care system that left millions of people without health insurance by extending Medicaid coverage to many low-income individuals and providing subsidies for Marketplace coverage for individuals below 400% of the federal poverty level (FPL). In addition, policies adopted during the pandemic, including the requirement that states maintain continuous enrollment for Medicaid enrollees and the enhanced subsidies in the Marketplace, protected people against coverage losses and improved the affordability of private coverage, making it easier for low-income individuals most affected by the pandemic to gain and retain coverage. As a result, after increasing for three straight years from 2017 to 2019, the number of nonelderly uninsured individuals dropped by nearly 1.5 million from 28.9 million in 2019 to 27.5 million in 2021, and the uninsured rate decreased from 10.9% in 2019 to 10.2% in 2021.
Copyright September 2017 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, posted on the Internet, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.
The 2017 Census of Agriculture reported total U.S. irrigated cropland at 58 million acres. Much of the irrigated land is concentrated in the western U.S. where the production of many crops requires irrigation. Irrigation is also common in the southeastern U.S., particularly along the Mississippi River Valley in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Tennessee as well as southern Georgia and central Florida. Where irrigation occurs depends on regional cropping patterns, local climatic conditions as well as the availability of surface and groundwater resources.
Nebraska had the most irrigated land among all U.S. States, with 8.6 million acres of irrigated cropland, accounting for 14.8 percent of all irrigated cropland in the United States. The prevalence of irrigated acreage in Nebraska relates to the abundance of groundwater resources as much of the state overlies the High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. California ranked second, with 7.8 million acres, or 13.5 percent of all U.S. irrigated cropland; Arkansas, Texas, and Idaho rounded out the top 5 States in total irrigated cropland acreage in 2017. The twenty highest-ranked States in irrigated acreage accounted for about 90 percent of all irrigated land in 2017.
National trends in total irrigated acres belie important inter-regional variation in where irrigation occurs. Between 1997 and 2017 total irrigated agricultural land in California decreased from 8.8 to 7.8 million acres while irrigated land in Nebraska increased from 7 to 8.6 million acres. Over this same time period, irrigated cropland acreage in Arkansas increased by more than 1 million acres while Texas saw a decline of nearly 1.5 million acres. In 2012, Arkansas supplanted Texas as the State with the third most irrigated acres behind Nebraska and California. These observed regional trends reflect how changing water availability related to competing water demands, drought effects on surface water supplies and groundwater depletion has influenced the regional distribution of irrigated production.
Irrigation water allocations by crop reflect climate and crop-water consumptive requirements as well as shifting market conditions. Irrigated acres planted in corn and soybeans have expanded in the past 50 years. In 1964, cotton and hay, alfalfa were the leading irrigated crops, with corn and soybeans together accounting for less than 2.5 million irrigated acres. In 2017, corn grown for grain accounted for the most irrigated acreage in the U.S. with more than 12 million irrigated acres harvested. Soybeans accounted for the second most irrigated acreage in 2017 with more than 9 million irrigated acres harvested. The shift reflects expanding market demand for corn and soybeans as livestock feed and source for biofuel, as well as the broader eastern shift of irrigated agriculture where variable growing season rainfall promotes irrigating corn and soybean crops. 041b061a72